The plural was also used as a place name, as Castra Cornelia, and from this comes the Welsh place name prefix caer- and English suffixes -caster and -chester; e. Castrorum Filius, "son of the camps," was one of the names used by the emperor Caligula and then also by other emperors.
Castroalso derived from Castrum, is a common Spanish family name as well as toponym in Italythe Balkans and Semnale comerciale forturi and other Hispanophone countries, either by itself or in various compounds such as the World Heritage Site of Gjirokastër earlier Argurokastro.
The terms stratopedon army camp and phrourion fortification were used by Greek language authors to semnale comerciale forturi castrum and castellum, respectively. Description[ edit ] Basic ideal plan of a Roman castrum. A castrum was designed to house and protect the soldiers, their equipment and supplies when they were not fighting or marching. The most detailed description that survives about Roman military camps is De Munitionibus Castroruma manuscript of 11 pages that dates most probably from the late 1st to early 2nd century AD.
Camps were the responsibility of engineering units to which specialists of many types belonged, officered by architecti, "chief engineers", who requisitioned manual labor from the soldiers at large as required.
They could throw up a camp under enemy attack in as little as a few hours. Judging from the names, they probably used a repertory of camp plans, selecting the one appropriate to the length of time a legion would spend in it: tertia castra, quarta castra, etc.
The least semnale comerciale forturi of these were castra aestiva or aestivalia, "summer camps", in which the soldiers were housed sub pellibus or sub tentoriis, "under tents".
For semnale comerciale forturi winter the soldiers retired to castra hiberna containing barracks and other buildings of more solid materials, with timber construction gradually being replaced by stone.
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Neither the Celtic nor Germanic armies had this capability: they found it necessary to disperse after only a few days. The largest castra were legionary fortresses built as bases for one or more whole legions.
Previously, legions were raised for specific military campaigns semnale comerciale forturi subsequently disbanded, requiring only temporary castra. From then on many castra of various sizes were established many of which became permanent settlements.
Plan of forts[ edit ] Plan of a typical Roman fort. Note the battlements, the Roman arches, the turres.
Reconstruction of the specula or vigilarium Germanic burgus"watchtower", a type of castrum, at Rainau-Buch, Germany. An ancient watchtower would have been surrounded by wall and ditch. Vegetius Renatus has a small section on entrenched camps as well. The terminology varies but the basic plan is the same. Late Roman fort in Jordan Late Roman Quadriburgium in Hungary The ideal semnale comerciale forturi a opțiuni paypal plan for a camp or fort: a square for camps to contain one legion or smaller unit, a rectangle for two legions, each legion being placed back-to-back with headquarters next to each other.
Laying it out was a geometric exercise conducted by experienced officers called metatores, who used graduated measuring rods called decempedae "footers" and gromatici who used a gromaa sighting device consisting of a vertical staff with horizontal cross pieces and vertical plumb-lines.
Ideally the process started in the centre of the planned camp at the site of the headquarters tent or building principia. Streets and other features were marked with coloured pennants or rods. The street plans of various present-day cities still retain traces of a Roman camp, for example Marsala in Sicily, the ancient Lilybaeum, where the name of the main street, the Cassaro, perpetuates the name "castrum".
Wall and ditch[ edit ] Castrum at Masada. Note the classical "playing-card" layout. The Castrum's special structure also defended from attacks. The base munimentum, "fortification" was placed entirely within the vallum "wall"which could be constructed under the protection of the legion in battle formation if necessary.
The vallum was quadrangular aligned on the cardinal points of the compass. The construction crews dug semnale comerciale forturi trench fossathrowing the excavated material inward, to be formed into the rampart agger.
On top of this a palisade of stakes sudes or valli was erected. The soldiers had to carry these stakes on the march. A legion-sized camp always placed towers at intervals along the wall with positions between for the division artillery. Interval[ edit ] Semnale comerciale forturi the inside periphery of the vallum was a clear space, the intervallum, which served to catch enemy missiles, as an access route to the vallum and as a storage space for cattle capita and plunder praeda. Legionaries were quartered in a peripheral zone inside the intervallum, which they could rapidly cross to take up position on the vallum.
Inside of the legionary quarters was a peripheral road, the Via Sagularis, probably a type of "service road", as the saguma kind of cloak, was the garment of soldiers. Streets, gates and central plaza[ edit ] Reconstructed east gate of a Castrum Stativum, a more permanent base, at WelzheimGermany.
Every camp included "main street", which ran through the camp in a north-south direction and was very wide. The names of streets in many cities formerly occupied by the Romans suggest that the street was called cardo or cardus maximus. This name applies more to cities than it does to ancient camps. The central portion was used as a parade ground and headquarters area. The "headquarters" building was called the praetorium because it housed the praetor or base commander "first officer"and his staff.
In the camp of a full legion he held the rank of consul or proconsul but officers of lesser ranks might command. On one side of the praetorium was the quaestorium, the building of the semnale comerciale forturi supply officer. On the other side was the foruma small duplicate of an urban forum, where public business could be conducted. Along the Via Principalis were the homes or tents of the several tribunes in front of the barracks of the units they commanded.
Which was on the north and which on the south depends on whether the praetorium faced east or west, which remains unknown. The central region of the Via Principalis with the buildings câștiguri bitcoin și venituri stabile the command staff was called the Principia plural of principium.
It was actually a square, as across this at right angles to the Via Principalis was the Via Praetoria, so called because the praetorium interrupted it.
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The Via Principalis and the Via Praetoria offered another division of the camp into four quarters. Porta Decumana at WeißenburgBavariaGermany Across the central plaza principia to semnale comerciale forturi east or west was the main gate, the Porta Praetoria.
Marching through it and down "headquarters street" a unit ended up in formation in front of the headquarters. The standards of the legion were located on display there, very much like the flag of modern camps. On the other side of the praetorium the Via Praetoria continued to the wall, where it went through the Porta Decumana. In theory this was the back gate. Supplies were supposed to come in through it and so it was also called, descriptively, the Porta Quaestoria.
The term Decumana, "of the 10th", came from the arranging of manipuli or turmae from the first to the 10th, such that the 10th was near the intervallum on that side. They were allowed into the camp as far as the units numbered 5 half-way to the praetorium. There another street crossed the camp at right angles to the Via Decumana, called the Via Quintana, "5th street".
Obiectivele strategice[ modificare modificare sursă ] Imperiul Britanic era o națiune insulară care stăpânea un uriaș imperiu colonial fiind prin aceasta dependent în cea mai mare parte de comerțul pe mare. Britanicii aveau nevoie de mai mult de un milion de tone de materiale diverse pentru industrie și de alimente pe săptămână pentru ca să supraviețuiască în lupta cu Germania. Începând dingermanii au mai avut ca obiectiv și prevenirea concentrării de trupe în insulele britanice, trupe care se pregăteau pentru debarcarea în Europa și deschiderea celui de-al doilea front. Înfrângerea marinei germane era o condiție obligatorie, fără de care nu se putea asigura succesul debarcării.
If the camp needed more gates, one or two of the Porta Quintana were built, presumably named dextra and sinistra. If the gates were not built, the Porta Decumana also became the Porta Quintana. At "5th street" a public market was allowed.
Not much remains of these horrea granaries at Arbeiabut the longitudinal supports for the floor can be seen. In the latera "sides" were the Arae sacrificial altarsthe Auguratorium for auspicesthe Tribunal, where courts martial and arbitrations were conducted it had a raised platformthe guardhouse, the quarters of various kinds of staff and the storehouses for grain horrea or meat carnarea.
Sometimes the horrea were semnale comerciale forturi near the barracks and the meat was stored on the hoof. Analysis of sewage from latrines indicates the legionary diet was mainly grain. Also located in the Latera was the Armamentarium, a long shed containing any heavy weapons and artillery not on the wall.
Roman artillery piece Onager The Praetentura "stretching to the front" contained the Scamnum Legatorum, the quarters of officers who were below general but higher than company commanders Legati. These included Classici "marines", as most European camps were on rivers and contained a river naval commandEquites "cavalry"Exploratores "scouts"and Vexillarii carriers of vexillae, the official pennants of the legion and its units. Troops who did not fit elsewhere also were there.
The part of the Retentura "stretching to the rear" closest to the Principia contained the Quaestorium. By the late empire it had developed also into a safekeep for plunder and a prison for hostages and high-ranking enemy captives.
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Near the Quaestorium were the quarters of the headquarters guard Statoreswho amounted to two centuries companies. If the Imperator was present they served as his bodyguard. Barracks[ edit ] A sanitary channel at PotaissaDacia modern Romania. It is placed cross-slope with a slight decline and then exits down-slope.
Further from the Quaestorium were the tents of the Nationes "natives"who were auxiliaries of foreign troops, semnale comerciale forturi the legionaries themselves in double rows of tents or barracks Strigae.
One Striga was as long as required and 18 m wide. In it were two Hemistrigia of facing tents centered in its 9 m strip. Arms could be stacked before the tents and baggage carts kept there as well. Space on the other side of the tent was semnale comerciale forturi passage. In the northern places like Britain, where it got cold in the winter, they would make semnale comerciale forturi or stone barracks.
The Romans would also put a fireplace in the barracks. They had about three bunk beds in it. They had a small room beside it where they put their armour; it was as big as the tents. They would also make these barracks if the fort they had was going to stay there for good. Ideally a company took 10 tents, arranged in a line of 10 companies, with the 10th near the Porta Decumana. Of the c.
The single tent with its men was called contuberniumalso used for "squad". A squad during some periods was 8 men or fewer. The Centurion, or company commander, had a double-sized tent for his quarters, which served also as official semnale comerciale forturi area. Other than there, the men had to find other places to be. To avoid mutiny, it became extremely important for the officers to keep them busy. A covered portico might protect the walkway along the tents.
AM INTRAT IN INCHISOAREA ABANDONATA JILAVA
If barracks had been constructed, one semnale comerciale forturi was housed in one barracks building, with the arms at one end and the common area at the other. The company area was used for cooking and recreation, such as gaming. The army provisioned the men and had their bread panis militaris baked in outdoor ovens, but the men were responsible for cooking and serving themselves.
They could buy meals or supplementary foods at the canteen. The officers were allowed servants. Sanitation[ edit ] For sanitary facilities, a camp had both public and private latrines. A public latrine consisted of a bank of seats situated semnale comerciale forturi a channel of running water. One of the major considerations for selecting the site of a camp was the presence of running water, which the engineers diverted into the sanitary channels.
Drinking water came from wells; however, the larger and more permanent bases featured the aqueducta structure running a stream captured from high ground sometimes miles away into the camp. The praetorium had its own latrine, and probably the quarters of the high-ranking officers. In or near the intervallum, where they could easily be accessed, were the latrines of the soldiers.
A public bathhouse for the soldiers, also containing a latrine, was located near or on the Via Principalis. Each doorway provides entry to a large room, the sleeping quarters of one contubernium, or "squad" of about 10 men.
The influence of a base extended far beyond its walls. The total land required for the maintenance of a permanent base was called its territoria. In it were located all the resources of nature and the terrain required by the base: pastures, woodlots, water sources, stone quarries, mines, exercise fields and attached villages.
The central castra might also support various fortified adjuncts to the main base, which were not in themselves self-sustaining as was the base. In this category were speculae, "watchtowers", castella, "small camps", and naval bases.
All the major bases near rivers featured some sort semnale comerciale forturi fortified naval installation, one side of which was formed by the river or lake. The other sides were formed by a polygonal wall and ditch constructed in the usual way, with gates and watchtowers. The main internal features were the boat sheds and the docks. When not in use, the boats were drawn up into the sheds for maintenance and protection. Since the camp was placed to best advantage on a hill or slope near the river, the naval base was usually outside its walls.
The classici and the optiones of the naval installation relied on the camp for its permanent defense. Naval personnel generally enjoyed better quarters and facilities. Many were civilians working for the military.
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Semnale comerciale forturi in practice[ edit ] This ideal was always modified to suit the terrain and the circumstances. Each semnale comerciale forturi discovered by archaeology has its own specific layout and architectural features, which makes sense from a military point of view. If, for example, the camp was built on an outcrop, it followed the lines of the outcrop. The terrain for which it was best suited and for which it was probably designed in distant prehistoric times was the rolling plain.
The camp was best placed on the summit and along the side of a low hill, with spring water running in rivulets through the camp aquatio and pastureland to provide grazing pabulatio for the animals. In case of attack, arrows, javelins and sling missiles could be fired down at an enemy tiring himself to come up.
For defence troops could be formed in an acies, or "battle-line", outside the gates, where they could be easily resupplied and replenished, as well as being supported by archery from the palisade.