Opțiuni de schimb valutar. Opțiune valutară cu acoperire a depozitului: caracteristici, condiții
Main article: Shareholder A shareholder or stockholder is an individual or company including a corporation that legally owns one or more shares of stock in a joint stock company. Both private and public traded companies have shareholders. Shareholders are granted special privileges depending on the class of stock, including the right to vote on matters such as elections to the board of directorsthe right to share in distributions of the company's income, the right to purchase new shares issued by the company, and the right to a company's assets during a liquidation of the company.
However, shareholder's rights to a company's assets are subordinate to the rights of the company's creditors.
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Shareholders are one type of stakeholderswho may include anyone who has a direct or indirect equity interest in the business entity or someone with a non-equity interest in a non-profit organization. Thus it might be common to call volunteer contributors to an association stakeholders, even though they are not shareholders. Although directors and officers of a company are bound by fiduciary duties to act in the best interest of the shareholders, the shareholders themselves normally do not have such duties towards each other.
However, in a few unusual cases, some courts have been willing to imply such a duty between shareholders. For example, in CaliforniaUSAmajority shareholders of closely held corporations have a duty not to destroy the value of the shares held by minority shareholders.
Application[ edit ] The owners of a private company may want additional capital to invest in new projects within the company.
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They may also simply wish to reduce their holding, freeing up capital for their own private use. They can achieve these goals by selling shares in the company to the general public, through a sale on a stock exchange. This process is called an initial public offeringor IPO. By selling shares they can sell part or all of the company to many part-owners.
The purchase of one share entitles the owner of that share to literally share in the ownership of the company, a fraction of the decision-making power, and potentially a fraction of the profits, which the company may issue as dividends. The owner may also inherit debt and even litigation.
In the common case of a publicly traded corporation, where there may be thousands of shareholders, it is impractical to have all of them making the daily decisions required to run a company.
Thus, the shareholders will use their shares as votes in the election of members of the board of directors of the company.
In a typical case, each share constitutes one vote. Corporations may, however, issue different classes of shares, which may have different voting rights. Owning the majority of the shares allows other shareholders to be out-voted — effective control rests with the majority shareholder or shareholders acting in concert.
In this way the original owners of the company often still have control of the company. This is because the company is considered a legal person, thus it owns all its assets itself. This is important in areas such as insurance, which must be in the name of the company and un investitor cumpără o opțiune de vânzare atunci când prezice the main shareholder.
In most countries, boards of directors and company managers have a fiduciary responsibility to run the company in the interests of its stockholders. Nonetheless, as Martin Whitman writes Instead, there are both "communities of interest" and "conflicts of interest" between stockholders principal and management agent.
This conflict is referred to as the principal—agent problem. It would be naive to think that any management would forego management compensation, and management entrenchmentjust because some of these management privileges might be perceived as giving rise to a conflict of interest with OPMIs.
Each shareholder typically has a percentage of votes equal to the percentage of shares he or she owns.
So as long as the shareholders agree that the management agent are performing poorly they can select a new board of directors which can then hire a new management team. In practice, however, genuinely contested board elections are rare.
Board candidates are usually nominated by insiders or by the board of the directors themselves, and a considerable amount of stock is held or voted by insiders. Owning shares does not mean responsibility for liabilities. If a company goes broke and has to default on loans, the shareholders are not liable in any way.
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However, all money obtained by converting assets into cash will be used to repay loans and other debts first, so that shareholders cannot receive any money unless and until creditors have been paid often the shareholders end up with nothing. Alternatively, debt financing for example issuing bonds can be done to avoid giving up shares of ownership of the company.
Unofficial financing known as trade financing usually provides the major part of a company's working capital day-to-day operational needs. Main article: Stock trader A stockbroker using multiple screens to stay up to date on trading In general, the shares of a company may be transferred from shareholders to other parties by sale or other mechanisms, unless prohibited.
Most jurisdictions have established laws and regulations governing such transfers, particularly if the issuer is a publicly traded entity.
The desire of stockholders to trade their shares has led to the establishment of stock exchangesorganizations which provide marketplaces for trading shares and other derivatives and financial products. Today, stock traders are usually represented by a stockbroker who buys and sells shares of a wide range of companies on such exchanges.
A company may list its shares on an exchange by meeting and maintaining the listing requirements of a particular stock exchange. In the United States, through the intermarket trading system, stocks listed on one exchange can often also be traded on other participating exchanges, including electronic communication networks ECNssuch as Archipelago or Instinet.
S companies choose to list on a U. These companies must maintain a block of shares at a bank in the US, typically a certain percentage of their capital. On this basis, the holding bank establishes American depositary shares and issues an American depositary receipt ADR for each share a trader acquires. Likewise, many large U. Small companies that do not qualify and cannot meet the listing requirements of the major exchanges may be traded over-the-counter OTC by an off-exchange mechanism in which trading occurs directly between parties.
Shares of companies in bankruptcy proceedings are 80 la 20 de opțiuni binare listed by these quotation services after the stock is delisted from an exchange. Buying[ edit ] There are various methods of buying and financing stocks, the most common being through a stockbroker.
Brokerage firms, whether they are a full-service or discount broker, arrange the transfer of stock from a seller to a buyer. Most trades are actually done through brokers listed with a stock exchange.
There are many different brokerage firms from which to choose, such as full service brokers or discount brokers. The full service brokers usually charge more per trade, but give investment advice or more personal service; the discount brokers offer little or no investment advice but charge less for trades.
Another type of broker would be a bank or credit union that may have a deal set up with either a full-service or discount broker. There are other ways of buying stock besides through a broker.
One way is directly from the company itself. If at least one share is owned, most companies will allow the purchase of shares directly from the company through their investor relations departments. However, the initial share of stock in the company will have to be obtained through a regular stock broker.
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Another way to buy stock in companies is through Direct Public Offerings which are usually sold by the company itself. A direct public offering is an initial public offering in which the stock is purchased directly from the company, usually without the aid of brokers. When it comes to financing a purchase of stocks there are two ways: purchasing stock with money that is currently in the buyer's ownership, or by buying stock on margin.
Buying stock on margin means buying stock with money borrowed against the value of stocks in the same account.
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Potențial de opțiuni stocks, or collateralguarantee that the buyer can repay the loan ; otherwise, the stockbroker has the right to sell the stock collateral to repay the borrowed money. Buying on margin works the same way as borrowing money to buy a car or a house, using a car or house as collateral. Selling[ edit ] Selling stock is procedurally similar to buying stock.
Generally, the investor wants to buy low and sell high, if not in that order short selling ; although a number of reasons may induce an investor to sell at a loss, e. As with buying a stock, there is a transaction fee for the broker's efforts in arranging the transfer of stock from a seller to a buyer. This fee can be high or low depending on which type of brokerage, full service or discount, handles the transaction. After the transaction has been made, the seller is then entitled to all of the money.
An important part of selling is keeping track of the earnings. Importantly, on selling the stock, in jurisdictions that have them, capital gains taxes will have to be paid on the additional proceeds, if any, that are in excess of the cost basis.
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Short Selling[ edit ] Short selling a stock is when an investor borrows stock shares from a lender, and then immediately sells the shares. Fundamentally, an investor is betting  that the stock will drop. So, an investor makes a profit, when a stock lowers down in short selling. Risks of Short Selling[ edit ] Short selling risks are usually more than buying a stock.
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This is because, theoretically, the loss can be infinite, since the stock can go up in value forever. Like all commodities in the market, the price of a stock is sensitive to demand. However, there are many factors that influence the demand for a particular stock. The fields of fundamental analysis and technical analysis attempt to understand market conditions that lead to price changes, or even predict future price levels. A recent study shows that customer satisfaction, as measured by the American Customer Satisfaction Index ACSIis significantly correlated to the market value of a stock.
Opțiuni de schimb valutar. Opțiune valutară cu acoperire a depozitului: caracteristici, condiții
Stocks can also fluctuate greatly due to pump and dump scams. Share price determination[ edit ] At any given moment, an equity's price is strictly a result of supply and demand. The supply, commonly referred to as the floatis the number of shares offered for sale at any one moment. The demand is un investitor cumpără o opțiune de vânzare atunci când prezice number of shares investors wish to buy at exactly that same time.
The price of the stock moves in order to achieve and maintain equilibrium. The product of this instantaneous price and the float at any one time is the market capitalization of the entity offering the equity at that point in time. When prospective buyers outnumber sellers, the price rises.
When sellers outnumber buyers, the price falls. Thus, the value of a share of a company at any given moment is determined by all investors voting with their money. If more investors want a stock and are willing to pay more, the price will go up.
If more investors are selling a stock and there aren't enough buyers, the price will go down. Note: "For Nasdaq -listed stocks, the price quote includes information on the bid and ask prices for the stock.
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In professional investment circles the efficient market hypothesis EMH continues to be popular, although this theory is widely discredited in academic and professional circles. Briefly, EMH says that investing is overall weighted by the standard deviation rational; that the price of a stock at any given moment represents a rational evaluation of the known information that might bear on the future value of the company; and that share prices of equities are priced efficiently, which is to say that they represent accurately the expected value of the stock, as best it can be known at a given moment.
In other words, prices are the result of discounting expected future cash flows.
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The EMH model, if true, has at least two interesting consequences. First, because financial risk is presumed to require at least a small premium on expected value, the return on equity can be expected to be slightly greater than that available from non-equity investments: if not, the same rational calculations would lead equity investors to shift to these safer non-equity investments that could be expected to give the same or better return at lower risk. Second, because the price of a share at every given moment is an "efficient" reflection of expected value, then—relative to the curve of expected return—prices will tend to follow a random walkdetermined by the emergence of information randomly over time.
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Professional equity investors therefore immerse themselves in the flow of fundamental information, seeking to gain an advantage over their competitors mainly other professional investors by more intelligently interpreting the emerging flow of information news.
The EMH model does not seem to give a complete description of the process of equity price determination. For example, stock markets are more volatile than EMH would imply. In recent years it has come to be accepted that the share markets are not perfectly efficient, perhaps especially in emerging markets or other markets that are not dominated by well-informed professional investors. Another theory of share price determination comes from the field of Behavioral Finance.
According to Behavioral Finance, humans often make irrational decisions—particularly, related to the buying and selling of securities—based upon fears and misperceptions of outcomes. The irrational trading of securities can often create securities prices which vary from rational, fundamental price valuations.
For instance, during the technology bubble of the late s which was followed by the dot-com bust of —technology companies were often bid beyond any rational fundamental value because of what is commonly known as the " greater fool theory ".
The "greater fool theory" holds that, because the predominant method of realizing returns in equity is from the sale to another investor, one should select securities that they believe that someone else will value at a higher level at some point in the future, un investitor cumpără o opțiune de vânzare atunci când prezice regard to the basis for that other party's willingness to pay a higher price.